QIC Abstracts

 Vol.14 No.3&4, March 1, 2014

Research Articles:

Classical simulations of Abelian-group normalizer circuits with intermediate measurements (pp0181-0216)
Juan Bermejo-Vega and Maarten Van den Nest
Quantum normalizer circuits were recently introduced as generalizations of Clifford circuits: a normalizer circuit over a finite Abelian group G is composed of the quantum Fourier transform (QFT) over G, together with gates which compute quadratic functions and automorphisms. In \cite{VDNest_12_QFTs} it was shown that every normalizer circuit can be simulated efficiently classically. This result provides a nontrivial example of a family of quantum circuits that cannot yield exponential speed-ups in spite of usage of the QFT, the latter being a central quantum algorithmic primitive. Here we extend the aforementioned result in several ways. Most importantly, we show that normalizer circuits supplemented with intermediate measurements can also be simulated efficiently classically, even when the computation proceeds adaptively. This yields a generalization of the Gottesman-Knill theorem (valid for n-qubit Clifford operations) to quantum circuits described by arbitrary finite Abelian groups. Moreover, our simulations are twofold: we present efficient classical algorithms to sample the measurement probability distribution of any adaptive-normalizer computation, as well as to compute the amplitudes of the state vector in every step of it. Finally we develop a generalization of the stabilizer formalism relative to arbitrary finite Abelian groups: for example we characterize how to update stabilizers under generalized Pauli measurements and provide a normal form of the amplitudes of generalized stabilizer states using quadratic functions and subgroup cosets.

Security of high speed quantum key distribution with finite detector dead time (pp0217-0235)
Viacheslav Burenkov, Bing Qi, Ben Fortescue, and Hoi-Kwong Lo
The security of a high speed quantum key distribution system with finite detector dead time $\tau$ is analyzed. When the transmission rate becomes higher than the maximum count rate of the individual detectors ($1/\tau$), security issues affect the scheme for sifting bits. Analytical calculations and numerical simulations of the Bennett-Brassard BB84 protocol are performed. We study Rogers et al.'s scheme (further information is available in [D. J. Rogers, J. C. Bienfang, A. Nakassis, H. Xu, and C. W. Clark, New J. Phys.~{\bf 9}, 319 (2007)]) in the presence of an active eavesdropper Eve who has the power to perform an intercept-resend attack. It is shown that Rogers et al.'s scheme is no longer guaranteed to be secure. More specifically, Eve can induce a basis-dependent detection efficiency at the receiver's end. Modified key sifting schemes that are basis-independent and thus secure in the presence of dead time and an active eavesdropper are then introduced. We analyze and compare these secure sifting schemes for this active Eve scenario, and calculate and simulate their key generation rate. It is shown that the maximum key generation rate is $1/(2\tau)$ for passive basis selection, and $1/\tau$ for active basis selection. The security analysis for finite detector dead time is also extended to the decoy state BB84 protocol for one particular secure sifting scheme.

Two-party QPC with polarization-entangled Bell states and the coherent states (pp0236-0254)
Xiao-Ming Xiu, Li Dong, Hong-Zhi Shen, Ya-Jun Gao, and X. X. Yi
We propose a protocol of quantum privacy comparison with polarization-entangled Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (Bell) states and the coherent states. One of two legitimate participants, Alice, prepares polarization-entangled Bell states and keeps one photon of each photon pair and sends the other photons to the third party, Charlie. Receiving the photons, Charlie performs single-photon transformation operations on them and then sends them to the other legitimate participant, Bob. Three participants adopt parity analysis method to check the distribution security of Bell states. Exploiting polarization beam splitters and nonlinear interactions mediated by the probe coherent states in Kerr media, Alice and Bob check the parities of their photons using the bases of $\{\ket H, \ket V\}$ or $\{\ket +, \ket -\}$. On the basis of the parity analysis outcomes and Charlie's publicized information, they can analyze the security of the distributed quantum channel. Confirming secure distribution of the shared Bell states, two participants perform respective parity measurements on the privacy photons and own photons of Bell states, and then send the results to Charlie. According to information provided by two legitimate participants and his single-qubit transformation operations, Charlie compares the privacy information of Alice and Bob and publicizes the conclusion.

Dynamics of multi-qubit states in non-inertial frames for quantum communication applications (pp0255-0264)
Alaa Sagheer and Hala Hamdoun
In this paper, some properties of multi-qubit states traveling in non-inertial frames are investigated, where we assume that all particles are accelerated. These properties are including fidelities, capacities and entanglement of the accelerated channels for three different states, namely, Greeberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) state, GHZ-like state and W-state. It is shown here that all these properties are decreased as the accelerations of the moving particles are increased. The obtained results show that the GHZ-state is the most robust state comparing to the others, where the degradation rate is less than that for the other states particularly in the second Rindler region. Also, it is shown here that the entangled property doesn't change in the accelerated frames. Additionally, the paper shows that the degree of entanglement decreases as the accelerations of the particles increase in the first Rindler region. However in the second region, where all subsystems are disconnected at zero acceleration, entangled states are generated as the acceleration increases.

Steady-state entanglement by engineered quasi-local Markovian dissipation (pp0265-0294)
Francesco Ticozzi and Lorenza Viola
We characterize time-independent Markovian dynamics that drive a finite-dimensional multipartite quantum system into a target (pure) entangled steady state, subject to physical locality constraints. New control schemes are introduced in situations where the desired stabilization task {\em cannot} be attained solely based on quasi-local dissipative means, as considered in previous analysis. The new schemes either allow for Hamiltonian control or, if the latter is not an option, suitably restrict the set of admissible initial states. In both cases, we provide explicit algorithms for constructing a Markovian master equation that achieves the intended objective and show how this genuinely extends the manifold of stabilizable states. In particular, we present dissipative quasi-local control protocols for deterministically engineering multipartite GHZ ``cat'' states and W states on $n$ qubits. For GHZ states, we show that no scalable procedure exists for achieving stabilization from arbitrary initial states, whereas this is possible for a target W state by a suitable combination of a two-body Hamiltonian and dissipators. Interestingly, for both entanglement classes, we show that quasi-local stabilization may be {\em scalably} achieved conditional to initialization of the system in a large, appropriately chosen subspace.

Quantum solution to a three player Kolkata restaurant problem using entangled qutrits (pp0295-0305)
Puya Sharif and Hoshang Heydari
Three player quantum Kolkata restaurant problem is modelled using three entangled qutrits. This first use of three level quantum states in this context is a step towards a $N$-choice generalization of the $N$-player quantum minority game. It is shown that a better than classical payoff is achieved by a Nash equilibrium solution where the space of available strategies is spanned by subsets of SU(3) and the players share a tripartite entangled initial state.

Faster phase estimation (pp0306-0328)
Krysta M. Svore, Matthew B. Hastings, and Michael Freedman
We develop several algorithms for performing quantum phase estimation based on basic measurements and classical post-processing. We present a pedagogical review of quantum phase estimation and simulate the algorithm to numerically determine its scaling in circuit depth and width. We show that the use of purely random measurements requires a number of measurements that is optimal up to constant factors, albeit at the cost of exponential classical post-processing; the method can also be used to improve classical signal processing. We then develop a quantum algorithm for phase estimation that yields an asymptotic improvement in runtime, coming within a factor of $\log^*$ of the minimum number of measurements required while still requiring only minimal classical post-processing. The corresponding quantum circuit requires asymptotically lower depth and width (number of qubits) than quantum phase estimation.

High performance error correction for quantum key distribution using polar codes (pp0329-0338)
Paul Jouguet and Sebastien Kunz-Jacques
We study the use of polar codes for both discrete and continuous variables Quantum Key Distribution (QKD). Although very large blocks must be used to obtain the efficiency required by quantum key distribution, and especially continuous variables quantum key distribution, their implementation on generic x86 Central Processing Units (CPUs) is practical. Thanks to recursive decoding, they exhibit excellent decoding speed, much higher than large, irregular Low Density Parity Check (LDPC) codes implemented on similar hardware, and competitive with implementations of the same codes on high-end Graphic Processing Units (GPUs).

Systems of Imprimitivity for the Clifford group (pp0339-0360)
D.M. Appleby, Ingemar Bengtsson, Stephen Brierley, Asa Ericsson, Markus Grassl, and Jan-Ake Larsson
It is known that if the dimension is a
perfect square the Clifford group can be represented by monomial matrices. Another way of expressing this result is to say that when the dimension is a perfect square the standard representation of the Clifford group has a system of imprimitivity consisting of one dimensional subspaces. We generalize this result to the case of an arbitrary dimension. Let k be the square-free part of the dimension. Then we show that the standard representation of the Clifford group has a system of imprimitivity consisting of $k$-dimensional subspaces. To illustrate the use of this result we apply it to the calculation of SIC-POVMs (symmetric informationally complete positive operator valued measures), constructing exact solutions in dimensions 8 (hand-calculation) as well as 12 and 28 (machine-calculation).

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