QIC Abstracts

 Vol.6 No.7 November 1, 2006

Research Articles:
On the security of $\alpha\eta$: response to 'some attacks on quantum-based cryptographic protocols' (pp561-582)
          H.P. Yuen,  R. Nair, E. Corndorf, G.S. Kanter, and P. Kumar 
Lo and Ko have developed some attacks on the cryptosystem called $\alpha \eta$}, claiming that these attacks undermine the security of $\alpha\eta$ for both direct encryption and key generation. In this paper, we show that their arguments fail in many different ways. In particular, the first attack in [1] requires channel loss or length of known-plaintext that is exponential in the key length and is unrealistic even for moderate key lengths. The second attack is a Grover search attack based on `asymptotic orthogonality' and was not analyzed quantitatively in [1]. We explain why it is not logically possible to "pull back'' an argument valid only at $n=\infty$ into a limit statement, let alone one valid for a finite number of transmissions n. We illustrate this by a `proof' using a similar asymptotic orthogonality argument that coherent-state BB84 is insecure for any value of loss. Even if a limit statement is true, this attack is a priori irrelevant as it requires an indefinitely large amount of known-plaintext, resources and processing. We also explain why the attacks in [1] on $\alpha\eta$ as a key-generation system are based on misinterpretations of [2]. Some misunderstandings in [1] regarding certain issues in cryptography and optical communications are also pointed out. Short of providing a security proof for $\alpha\eta$, we provide a description of relevant results in standard cryptography and in the design of $\alpha\eta$ to put the above issues in the proper framework and to elucidate some security features of this new approach to quantum cryptography.

Characterization of several kinds of quantum analogues of relative entropy (pp583-596)
         M. Hayashi   
Quantum relative entropy $D(\rho\|\sigma)\defeq\Tr \rho (\log \rho- \log \sigma)$ plays an important role in quantum information and related fields. However, there are many quantum analogues of relative entropy. In this paper, we characterize these analogues from information geometrical viewpoint. We also consider the naturalness of quantum relative entropy among these analogues.

Characterizations of symmetric monotone metrics on the state space of quantum systems (pp597-605)
         F. Hansen     
The quantum Fisher information is a Riemannian metric, defined on the state space of a quantum system, which is symmetric and decreasing under stochastic mappings. Contrary to the classical case such a metric is not unique. We complete the characterization, initiated by Morozova, Chentsov and Petz, of these metrics by providing a closed and tractable formula for the set of Morozova-Chentsov functions. In addition, we provide a continuously increasing bridge between the smallest and largest symmetric monotone metrics.

Quantum advantage without entanglement (pp606-615)
         D. Kenigsberg, A. Mor, and G. Ratsaby    
We study the advantage of pure-state quantum computation without entanglement over classical computation. For the Deutsch-Jozsa algorithm we present the \emph{maximal} subproblem that can be solved without entanglement, and show that the algorithm still has an advantage over the classical ones. We further show that this subproblem is of greater significance, by proving that it contains all the Boolean functions whose quantum phase-oracle is non-entangling. For Simon's and Grover's algorithms we provide simple proofs that no non-trivial subproblems can be solved by these algorithms without entanglement.

Robustness of Shor's algorithm (pp616-629)
         S.J. Devitt, A.G. Fowler, and L.C.L. Hollenberg 
Shor's factorisation algorithm is a combination of classical pre- and post-processing and a quantum period finding (QPF) subroutine which allows an exponential speed up over classical factoring algorithms. We consider the stability of this subroutine when exposed to a discrete error model that acts to perturb the computational trajectory of a quantum computer. Through detailed state vector simulations of an appropriate quantum circuit, we show that the error locations within the circuit itself heavily influences the probability of success of the QPF subroutine. The results also indicate that the naive estimate of required component precision is too conservative.

Entanglement and its role in Shor's algorithm (pp630-640)
          V.M. Kendon and W.J. Munro 
Entanglement has been termed a critical resource for quantum information processing and is thought to be the reason that certain quantum algorithms, such as Shor's factoring algorithm, can achieve exponentially better performance than their classical counterparts. The nature of this resource is still not fully understood: here we use numerical simulation to investigate how entanglement between register qubits varies as Shor's algorithm is run on a quantum computer. The shifting patterns in the entanglement are found to relate to the choice of basis for the quantum Fourier transform.

Teleportation via multi-qubit channels (pp641-670)
          J. Links, J.P. Barjaktarevic, G.J. Milburn, and R.H. Mckenzie
We investigate the problem of teleporting an unknown qubit state to a recipient via a channel of $2{\mathcal L}$ qubits. In this procedure a protocol is employed whereby ${\mathcal L}$ Bell state measurements are made and information based on these measurements is sent via a classical channel to the recipient. Upon receiving this information the recipient determines a local gate which is used to recover the original state. We find that the $2^{2\mathcal L}$-dimensional Hilbert space of states available for the channel admits a decomposition into four subspaces. Every state within a given subspace is a perfect channel, and each sequence of Bell measurements projects $2{\mathcal L}$ qubits of the system into one of the four subspaces. As a result, only two bits of classical information need be sent to the recipient for them to determine the gate. We note some connections between these four subspaces and ground states of many-body Hamiltonian systems, and discuss the implications of these results towards understanding entanglement in multi-qubit systems.

Authors Index (Vol6, 2006) (pp671-672)

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