QIC Abstracts

 Vol.8 No.1&2 January, 2008

Research Articles: 
Feasibility study of free-Space quantum key distribution in the mid-infrared (pp0001-0011) PDF
          G. Temporao, H. Zibinden, S. Tanzilli, N. Gisin, T. Aellen, M. Giovannini, J. Faist, and J. von der Weid
We report on a feasibility study of a free-space Quantum Key Distribution setup operating at a mid-infrared wavelength. Alice sends polarization-coded pseudo-single photons from a Quantum Cascade Laser at 4.6 $\mu$m to Bob, who uses a nonlinear crystal and a Silicon Avalanche Photodiode to perform the detection via Sum Frequency Generation. Theoretical predictions, based on a proof-of-principle experiment, show that, under certain foggy atmospheric conditions, the proposed system is barely affected, whereas other systems operating at standard near-infrared wavelengths would simply not work at all.

Quantum algorithm design using dynamic learning (pp0012-0029) PDF
          E.C. Behrman, J.E. Steck, P. Kumar, and K.A. Walsh
We present a dynamic learning paradigm for ``programming'' a general quantum computer. A learning algorithm is used to find the control parameters for a coupled qubit system, such that the system at an initial time evolves to a state in which a given measurement corresponds to the desired operation. This can be thought of as a quantum neural network. We first apply the method to a system of two coupled superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDs), and demonstrate learning of both the classical gates XOR and XNOR. Training of the phase produces a gate similar to the CNOT. Striking out for somewhat more interesting territory, we attempt learning of an entanglement witness for a two qubit system. Simulation shows a reasonably successful mapping of the entanglement at the initial time onto the correlation function at the final time for both pure and mixed states. For pure states this mapping requires knowledge of the phase relation between the two parts; however, given that knowledge, this method can be used to measure the entanglement of an otherwise unknown state. The method is easily extended to multiple qubits or to quNits.

$\epsilon$-convertibility  of entangled states and extension of Schmidt rank in infinite-dimensional systems (pp0030-0052) PDF
          M. Owari, S.L. Braunstein, K. Nemoto, and M. Murao
By introducing the concept of $\epsilon$-convertibility, we extend Nielsen's and Vidal's theorems to the entanglement transformation of infinite-dimensional systems. Using an infinite-dimensional version of Vidal's theorem we derive a new stochastic-LOCC (SLOCC) monotone which can be considered as an extension of the Schmidt rank. We show that states with polynomially-damped Schmidt coefficients belong to a higher rank of entanglement class in terms of SLOCC convertibility. For the case of Hilbert spaces of countable, but infinite dimensionality, we show that there are actually an uncountable number of classes of pure non-interconvertible bipartite entangled states.

Practical effects in the preparation of cluster states using weak non-linearities (pp0053-0067) PDF
          P.P. Rohde, W.J. Munro, T.C. Ralph, P. van Loock, and K. Nemoto
We discuss experimental effects in the implementation of a recent scheme for performing bus mediated entangling operations between qubits. Here a bus mode, a strong coherent state, successively undergoes weak Kerr-type non-linear interactions with qubits. A quadrature measurement on the bus then projects the qubits into an entangled state. This approach has the benefit that entangling gates are non-destructive, may be performed non-locally, and there is no need for efficient single photon detection. In this paper we examine practical issues affecting its experimental implementation. In particular, we analyze the effects of post-selection errors, qubit loss, bus loss, mismatched coupling rates and mode-mismatch. We derive error models for these effects and relate them to realistic fault-tolerant thresholds, providing insight into realistic experimental requirements.

Exploring scalar quantum walks on Cayley graphs (pp0068-0081) PDF
          O.L. Acevedo, J. Roland, and N.J. Cerf
A quantum walk, \emph{i.e.}, the quantum evolution of a particle on a graph, is termed \emph{scalar} if the internal space of the moving particle (often called the coin) has dimension one. Here, we study the existence of scalar quantum walks on Cayley graphs, which are built from the generators of a group. After deriving a necessary condition on these generators for the existence of a scalar quantum walk, we present a general method to express the evolution operator of the walk, assuming homogeneity of the evolution. We use this necessary condition and the subsequent constructive method to investigate the existence of scalar quantum walks on Cayley graphs of groups presented with two or three generators. In this restricted framework, we classify all groups -- in terms of relations between their generators -- that admit scalar quantum walks, and we also derive the form of the most general evolution operator. Finally, we point out some interesting special cases, and extend our study to a few examples of Cayley graphs built with more than three generators.

On the role of shared entanglement (pp0082-0095) PDF
          D. Gavinsky
Despite the apparent similarity between shared randomness and shared entanglement in the context of Communication Complexity, our understanding of the latter is not as good as of the former. In particular, there is no known ``entanglement analogue'' for the famous theorem by Newman, saying that the number of shared random bits required for solving any communication problem can be at most logarithmic in the input length (i.e., using more than $\asO[]{\log n}$ shared random bits would not reduce the complexity of an optimal solution).   In this paper we prove that the same is not true for entanglement. We establish a wide range of tight (up to a polylogarithmic factor) entanglement vs.\ communication trade-offs for relational problems. The low end is:\ for any $t>2$, reducing shared entanglement from $log^tn$ to $\aso[]{log^{t-2}n}$ qubits can increase the communication required for solving a problem almost exponentially, from $\asO[]{log^tn}$ to $\asOm[]{\sqrt n}$. The high end is:\ for any $\eps>0$, reducing shared entanglement from $n^{1-\eps}\log n$ to $\aso[]{n^{1-\eps}/\log n}$ can increase the required communication from $\asO[]{n^{1-\eps}\log n}$ to $\asOm[]{n^{1-\eps/2}/\log n}$. The upper bounds are demonstrated via protocols which are \e{exact} and work in the \e{simultaneous message passing model}, while the lower bounds hold for \e{bounded-error protocols}, even in the more powerful \e{model of 1-way communication}. Our protocols use shared EPR pairs while the lower bounds apply to any sort of prior entanglement.   We base the lower bounds on a strong direct product theorem for communication complexity of a certain class of relational problems. We believe that the theorem might have applications outside the scope of this work.

Universal quantum computation with electronic qubits in decoherence-free subspace (pp0096-0105) PDF
          X.L. Zhang, M. Feng, and K.L. Gao
We investigate how to carry out universal quantum computation deterministically with free electrons in decoherence-free subspace by using polarizing beam splitters, charge detectors, and single-spin rotations. Quantum information in our case is encoded in spin degrees of freedom of the electron-pairs which construct a decoherence-free subspace. We design building blocks for two noncommutable single-logic-qubit gates and a logic controlled phase gate, based on which a universal and scalable quantum information processing robust to dephasing is available in a deterministic way.

Generalized Clifford groups and simulation  of associated quantum circuits (pp0106-0126) PDF
          S. Clark, R. Jozsa, and N. Linden
Quantum computations starting with computational basis states and involving only Clifford operations, are classically simulable despite the fact that they generate highly entangled states; this is the content of the Gottesman-Knill theorem. Here we isolate the ingredients of the theorem and provide generalisations of some of them with the aim of identifying new classes of simulable quantum computations. In the usual construction, Clifford operations arise as projective normalisers of the first and second tensor powers of the Pauli group. We consider replacing the Pauli group by an arbitrary finite subgroup $G$ of $U(d)$. In particular we seek $G$ such that $G\otimes G$ has an entangling normaliser. Via a generalisation of the Gottesman-Knill theorem the resulting normalisers lead to classes of quantum circuits that can be classically efficiently simulated. For the qubit case $d = 2$ we exhaustively treat all finite irreducible subgroups of $U(2)$ and find that the only ones (up to unitary equivalence and trivial phase extensions) with entangling normalisers are the groups generated by X and the $n^{\rm th}$ root of $Z$ for $n \in \N$.

On the Pauli graphs on N-qudits (pp0127-0146) PDF
          M. Planat and M. Saniga
A comprehensive graph theoretical and finite geometrical study of the commutation relations between the generalized Pauli operators of $N$-qudits is performed in which vertices/points correspond to the operators and edges/lines join commuting pairs of them. As per two-qubits, all basic properties and partitionings of the corresponding {\it Pauli graph} are embodied in the geometry of the generalized quadrangle of order two. Here, one identifies the operators with the points of the quadrangle and groups of maximally commuting subsets of the operators with the lines of the quadrangle.   The three basic partitionings are (a) a pencil of lines and a cube, (b) a Mermin's array and a bipartite-part and (c) a maximum independent set and the Petersen graph. These factorizations stem naturally from the existence of three distinct geometric hyperplanes of the quadrangle, namely a set of points collinear with a given point, a grid and an ovoid, which answer to three distinguished subsets of the Pauli graph, namely a set of six operators commuting with a given one, a Mermin's square, and set of five mutually non-commuting operators, respectively.   The generalized Pauli graph for multiple qubits is found to follow from symplectic polar spaces of order two, where maximal totally isotropic subspaces stand for maximal subsets of mutually commuting operators. The substructure of the (strongly regular) $N$-qubit Pauli graph is shown to be pseudo-geometric, i.\,e., isomorphic to a graph of a partial geometry. Finally, the (not strongly regular) Pauli graph of a two-qutrit system is introduced; here it turns out more convenient to deal with its dual in order to see all the parallels with the two-qubit case and its surmised relation with the generalized quadrangle $Q(4,3)$, the dual of $W(3)$.

The Jones polynomial: quantum algorithms and applications in quantum complexity theory (pp0147-0180) PDF
          P. Wocjan and J. Yard
We analyze relationships between quantum computation and a family of generalizations of the Jones polynomial. Extending recent work by Aharonov et al., we give efficient quantum circuits for implementing the unitary Jones-Wenzl representations of the braid group. We use these to provide new quantum algorithms for approximately evaluating a family of specializations of the HOMFLYPT two-variable polynomial of trace closures of braids. We also give algorithms for approximating the Jones polynomial of a general class of closures of braids at roots of unity. Next we provide a self-contained proof of a result of Freedman et al.\ that any quantum computation can be replaced by an additive approximation of the Jones polynomial, evaluated at almost any primitive root of unity. Our proof encodes two-qubit unitaries into the rectangular representation of the eight-strand braid group. We then give QCMA-complete and PSPACE-complete problems which are based on braids. We conclude with direct proofs that evaluating the Jones polynomial of the plat closure at most primitive roots of unity is a \#P-hard problem, while learning its most significant bit is PP-hard, circumventing the usual route through the Tutte polynomial and graph coloring.

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